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1、血脂异常患者的膳食营养应注意哪些?

上传日期:2015-11-20

作者:中国疾控中心营养所赵文华研究员、张坚研究员、宋鹏坤中国疾控中心慢病中心王卓群副研究员、赵艳芳国际生命科学学会中国办事处杨正雄研究员


血脂异常膳食干预的总原则是:适宜食物摄入量,控制总能量摄入与身体活动水平相适应,避免超重和肥胖。高危人群饱和脂肪酸供能比控制在膳食总能量的7%以下[1-2],饱和脂肪是畜类脂肪的主要构成成分,血脂异常人群应限制食用畜肉,每天不超过50克为宜,多选用鸡肉、鱼肉等饱和脂肪含量较低的动物性食物,减少食用加工肉类制品鱼类特别是海产鱼类所含的不饱和脂肪酸较高,每周进食2~3次每次50克对于血脂异常患者是适合的;血脂异常患者应避免含反式脂肪酸较高的奶油蛋糕、冰激凌等的摄入增加食用全谷物、绿叶蔬菜、水果等富含膳食纤维的食物全天膳食纤维摄入量不少于30克[3-8]。应限制胆固醇摄入,动物内脏如肝、脑、肾尽量少吃,每周最多不超过50克;尽量减少含糖饮料、精制谷类、烘焙甜点、油炸食品摄入[8-9]。此外,在平衡膳食基础上,可选用经大量科学研究证实、公认有效的膳食补充剂或功能性食品调节血脂,如植物甾醇、omega-3脂肪酸、深海鱼油等[10-12]


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[12] Bucher HC, Hengstler P, Schindler C, Meier G. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Med 2002;112:298–304.


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